International Journal of Architecture, Arts and Applications
Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2015, Pages: 15-22

The Study of Social and Cultural Problems arising from Heterogeneous Textures and Marginalization in Suburb Regions (Case Study: Khatoon Abad in Pakdasht)

Zahra Abbasi1, Mohammad Mahdi Momeni Tame2, Abbas Mandegari3, Mojtaba Vashaei4

1PhD Candidate of Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, science and research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Art and Architecture, Natanz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Natanz, Iran and Municipality Pakdasht

3Department of Art and Architecture, Natanz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Natanz, Iran and Architecture Expert, Mahestan Company

4Department of Art and Architecture, Natanz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Natanz, Iran

Email address:

(M. M. M. Tame)

To cite this article:

Zahra Abbasi, Mohammad Mahdi Momeni Tame, Abbas Mandegari, Mojtaba Vashaei. The Study of Social and Cultural Problems arising from Heterogeneous Textures and Marginalization in Suburb Regions (Case Study: Khatoon Abad in Pakdasht). International Journal of Architecture, Arts and Applications. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2015, pp. 15-22. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaaa.20150101.13

Abstract: The municipality is a population threshold aimed to estimate the needs of the population. Growth of Urban population is relatively disciplined in developed countries. Marginalization and heterogeneous textures are the important issues in today urban society and this phenomenon is growing along with economic, social and cultural issues. In this study, we examine important variables in the issue of marginalization and companionship of heterogeneous tissues of Khatoon Abad district in Pakdasht and we sought to obtain its social consequences. The results of the study indicate that immigration in small town of Khatoon Abad is the most important factor in the development of suburb areas, which is influenced by economic and socio-cultural repulsion and the economic and socio-cultural attractions of the target city. In social consequences, it has been found that there is a relation between the intensity of marginalization and the increased rate of the privation of marginalized people which leads to poverty in suburb regions. The method of this study is survey.

Keywords: Marginalization, Immigration, Social Impact, Khatoon Abad, Companionship of Heterogeneous Textures

1. Introduction

Demographic changes in recent decades have had a significant impact on the social structure. The increasing population of the country and their immigration from poor regions to regions with industrial potential has caused regional balance disorders which lie in the way the resources are distributed in these areas. Among these, the cities are superior because of having facilities and welfare infrastructure and their number and their residents are increasing. For this reason, the process of migration to the cities has been rapid and has destroyed villages. Our cities do not have the capacity to attract immigrants and most immigrants have moved to slums due to the financial and economic inabilities and are in social and economic isolation. This has caused many problems.

Understanding the factors influencing the formation of marginalization and the companion of heterogeneous textures and its social consequences is one of the most important social implications especially around metropolitan cities. This study aims to evaluate the social consequences of this matter which are often negative and emphasizes on the necessity of studying and balancing this subject, so this highlights the necessity of performing this research.

It seems that there is a significant relation between the economic attractions of the city and the intensity of marginalization has increased social negative consequences. Now we can ask:

1. Which are the most important factors affecting the development of marginalization and companionship of heterogeneous textures?

2. What are the most important social consequences of marginalization and heterogeneous textures?

In this study, the variables of heterogeneous and non- harmonic expansion of cities, irregular migration from the countryside to the city, as well as poverty, unemployment, and social consequences are evaluated.

Despite the extensive literature and studies on the field of identifying and analyzing the effective factors on marginalization and heterogeneous textures in suburbs, the importance of the issue made us decisive to study the adopted patterns and methods by urban planners around the world and in Iran, especially in case of facing marginalization and also providing the solutions based on the recognition of current situation in order to eliminate the phenomenon of marginalization or modifying and balancing the process of its formation and consequences.

According to the reports of The accommodation center of United Nations in 1996, around ¼ of the world population have human lives which covers an extensive range of homeless people, and people without shelter and this rate is increasing in under developed countries. Such that according to the reports in 2001 by the human accommodation center, about one-fifth of the urban population of the world live in absolute poverty and today the number of urban poor people is increasing in Asia more than in the second half of the 90s. The World Commission in the 21st century has warned that the future of cities is created along with the urbanization growth and based on the informal economy and together with the expansion of informal settlements and this trend is called in formalization of urbanization. Therefore, it can be seen that marginalization and informal settlements are appeared and this informal trend is not transitive with limited dimensions and there is an agreement upon the survival of reproduction and its development which denotes the lack of competence of solution and common policies of the city and needs modern approaches and actions. Implementing new plans in developing countries serves to break the traditional social and economic structure of these countries and has the phenomenon of marginalization with it. The phenomenon of marginalization in its new implication has been created in the developed countries of the world and has been developed in third world countries by the issuance of economic plans under the title of growth and development plans.

The consequence of industrial growth in Western countries was the incidence of many social problems that marginalization is one of them. Active industrial areas as the attractive pole of the population have summoned the work force from its different areas in its country and other countries and have gathered the extra not attracted work force in inappropriate settlements and shelters in specific areas of the city adjacent to the industrial areas and in this way, marginalization revealed its ugly face.

In Iran, the rapid urbanization in the past years is followed by marginalization and this growing phenomenon has caused many social, economic, cultural, environmental, and security problems in most large cities in Iran. The high rate of rural-urban immigration is another fact which has to be considered as a fundamental factor in urbanization growth of third world countries especially Iran. People with low-income who live in rural areas and work in traditional productive professions move to cities because these areas are in margins and in order to use facilities and services and poverty relief, therefore the developing city has binary culture.

The establishment of Reza Khan’s government and capitalist economic relation development which caused evolution in production methods followed by changes in urban and rural network and finally led to big cities as the focus of all new industrial activities, the peak of this movement which was based on oil sale was between 1335 and 1355 (Hesamian, 1998). As a result great rural-urban immigrations appeared and led to increased rural population in some big cities which caused the formation of huts in these cities. Khatoon Abad is one these areas which is in the framework of mentioned factors since mid 60s in Pakdasht, has been created as the focus of many factories and industrial workshops and reached its peak growth in mid 80s. The present study seeks to study the factors affecting the formation of marginalization and its social consequences in Khatoon Abad located in Pakdasht.

2. Methodology

Considering the aim of the research and its methodology to gather required information and data, two ways are considered: Library method and Internet have been used to collect the literature and empirical background. The methodology of this study is survey and the statistic population consists of marginalized people in Pakdasht (Khatoon Abad area) who are workers in production units (furnace).

3. Review of the Literature

Regarding the different forms of marginalization and the diversity of its constituents, different definitions are provided of which some are referred briefly. Some believe that marginalized people are those who live in unconventional settlements with the residents of the main texture (city); the mentioned groups are abandoned from their home town because of the repulsive force of the origins of poverty and unemployment and less attractive of the city. Since the majority of these groups are illiterate and do not have the skills needed in the labor market, this urban factor has abandoned them and has led them to slums (Mansoorian and Ayatollahi, 1987: 12). In other words, the implication of the marginalization is those who live within the city's economic system and are not attracted to economic social and economic system of the city (Zahedani, 1990: 6). Marginalized people have created a new way of life which is different from three common way of living meaning urban, rural and tribes and creates a specific physical texture with its unique social and economic features. The features of suburb areas include supply failure of medical services and high population density in residential units, the lack of comfort, the risks caused by natural factors and cultural poverty and social negative consequences (Jihad magazine, 1997).

Clarification of the phenomenon of marginalization and factors affecting its formation is inevitably associated with rapid growth and increasing representation of cities in developing countries. One of the first and oldest theories for studying the causes of this process is dependency theory which is considerable. This theory was established in Latin America in which it is reasoned that the development of Latin America requires the integration of region in the way of producing capital Dusantus, 1970, Gilbert and Gagler, 1996). Later people like Andre Gundr Frank (1967; 1969), Emmanuel (1972), Amin (1974) Valerstein (1974) applied in other developing countries (Gilbert and Cagler, 1996). The theory of global capitalism of Valerstein has been one of the key theories in marginalization in which the internal structure of developing countries is considered as a part of world production system and the implication of the center of the world and its surrounding is proposed (Valerstein, 1974). Afterwards these theories have been proposed in details with a kind of Neo-Marxist thinking in form of theoretical view in political economy in urban theories and by some people such as Henry Laufer, Manuel Castell, Richard and David Harvey. In this theory, the pattern of marginalization in cities is described with an emphasis on political economy or cross-regional forces and the key role is given to colonial and capitalist development in urban process of developing countries. The theories of modernization belong to the middle class. In these theories, the internal developments in modern society caused by modern phenomena such as industrial development, population growth and migration to cities and as a result of problems such as social conflict for those immigrants who could not adapt themselves to the norms of modern urban life are studied (Imani Jajromi, 2002: 4)

The intensified macro urban network's focus has intensified the urban problems including shelter and housing problem and since material and resources are distributed on the basis of stratification and social hierarchies, a group face the lack of shelter and this leads to the formation of disorganized settlements and marginalization in the cities. (Piran, 1997: 46)

Culture-oriented theories characterized by the psychological and cultural features of informal residents (marginalized people) begin with implications such as marginalized man and culture of poverty. The implication of marginal man is referred to a person who has not been attracted to the society and has remained a stranger. This implication has been used by some authors such as Park, Thomas and Zananiki (Imani Jajromi, 2002: 45). Zahid Zahedi argues that marginalized people are those who live in the economic limitation of the city and are not attracted to the urban economic system (Zahid, Zahedi, 1990: 6).

Generally, in Ikar Louis view, marginalized people are poor families and often immigrants who live in a sort of culture of poverty. They are fully attracted by the new way of urban life and continue their lives in this margin (Drakakis, 1998: 121).

Factors affecting the formation of marginalization and its social consequences in the city:

Marginalization appears as a complicated phenomenon on the interactions caused by the effects of various components and the recognition of their primacy and delay is difficult in comparison with each other and make us face errors in receiving and recognizing suitable solutions in order to eliminate this situation (Amakchi, 2002: 57). Park considers this phenomenon as a factor of marginalization referring to the racist and cultural contacts caused by immigration. In his view, one of the psychological- social consequences of migration is the immigrant in new situation (even though he has the same race as host society) who finds himself fighting with the expectations and values of two existing cultural systems and this vague circumstances causes a binary personality in him which represents the distinct feature of marginal man (Park, 1928: 881).

Generally marginalization is caused by urban growth. Such that in the first stages of growth, the city centers is the settlement of rich people but by the gradual development of industrial and commercial areas in these stages, those who are in better situations move from the city centers to suburbs and out of the city. Workers and poor people with low-income come to this central area and settle down. Since the owners receive low rents to repair and keep the buildings, these areas are crowded and destroyed and turn into slums (Clinard, 1966: 18).

In this study, we argue that marginalization is caused by different factors which go back to the unfair and unbalanced distribution of resources and wealth between rural and urban areas in the first stage and this increases the poverty and unemployment in rural areas. As a result of these repulsions, the immigration of people from villages to cities is increased. By extensive immigration to the cities, they become heterogeneous in terms of development. It should be noted that natural factors such as drought and other social and political events, such as the eight-year war between Iran and Iraq affected the increasing trend of immigration to cities and its heterogeneous development. So these factors lead to this fact that the abilities of cities cannot meet these needs and illegal bands and land abusers are formed along with this to attract immigrants and since there is no supervision on constructions, the activities of these groups become more extensive. Therefore the new immigrants cannot get attracted to the social and economic system of the city and they cannot have an appropriate place to live in suitable parts of the city, so they are drawn to the slums and the extent and dimensions of suburb regions increase.

4. Typology and Definition of Marginalization

Marginalized people are those who live in the city, but have not been attracted to the economic, socio-cultural system of the city for some reasons and could not use urban services (Abedini Darkoosh, 1986: 137). Even though it seems that immigration is the main cause of formation and growth of suburb regions in cities, some marginalized people are the residents of the city who live in unconventional, non-standard and informal residential units due to the poverty. These units are deprived of minimum health and safety requirements.

The image of marginalization presented by Charles Abrams shows the bulding or a part of the city in which the destruction, failure to provide health care, population density in residential units, the lack of the necessary comfort and the risks of natural effects can be seen (Shokoohi, 1998: 41). Pfohl believes that areas with high rates of delinquency have specific features such as instability of population, ethnic diversity, increasing economic displacement and poverty. (Pfohl, 1984: 149-150)

Park considers the elimination of local correlations and weakening barriers of the first group under the influence of urban environment as a factor which increases the crime in big cities.

Park considers a marginal man as a character that emerges from the encounter with a relation and a different and sometimes hostile cultural system. According to Park, such a hybrid creature has a sense of solidarity and belonging to both systems at the same time, but also considers that he belongs and is willing to none (Ansari, 1990: p 21).

Marginalization is divided into three categories in terms of primary residence: (1) indigenous marginalization (2) non- indigenous marginalization (3) binary marginalization

Indigenous marginalization includes the category of marginal people who are not immigrants. They live in slums since birth. Non- indigenous marginal people include the immigrants from the countryside and other cities that are drawn to these areas.

Binary marginal man is someone who has moved from a country to another country. These people have mainly come from Afghanistan and Arabic countries to Iran.

There are two types of marginalization in terms of aspects:

1. Social marginalization: In this type of marginalization people have marginal feeling in terms of social features such as language and behavior. This is more evident among immigrants who are different from destination settlers in terms of race, ethnicity, religion and class.

Marginal feeling makes the immigrants feel without identity and face a dilemma from the marginal aspect. At this point, they attempt to conceal their marginal features by forming groups and gangs.

2. The economic marginalization: low income, low skills, low education, low and Spurious careers are the features of economic marginalization.

3. Political marginalization: This kind of marginalization is a result of lack of their participation in the institutional construction of the political system.

The scholars argue that the crime is related to the degree of urban development. As the urban population increases, crime rates increase (Shakooyi, 2006: p102). In Robert Park’s view, density and mobility of population (an evident feature of city) mean crime, divorce and mental differences and anomie is its appropriate measurement indicator. Urban growth is equal to indirect relations instead of direct and face to face relationships.

Based on the theory of Park, the city is the best place for the emergence of disorganization, especially because it causes breakdown of family life, neighborhood relations, the customs and traditions.

Park (and his colleagues) found that: 1. The city is crowded and is full of cultural diversity, (2) urban society has no homogeneous and united social system, (3) the class interval is so high in city, (4) the city has a high rate of immigrants and (5) The city has a high crime rate.

Klynard states that slum is caused by the growth of cities. Deviance and delinquency in suburb regions is a lot and marginalization is the main source of crime.

Wirth (1938) has attempted to show that changes and patterns of human gatherings are due to three factors: the size, density and heterogeneity. The increase in density reduces interpersonal relations and leads to personal freedoms and this affects the situation of social chaos and crime.

The study of Bernard Lander indicates that in areas with unstable population, the there is more community-based disorganization. Unstable population is one of the features of suburb regions.

Katle, Belgian physicist and astronomer, showed a correlation between geographical environment and crime using numbers and figures. In his view, the crimes committed in the community and its periodic fluctuations is like a mathematical function dependent on the economic and social conditions of the time and place (Anselin, 2000: p 216).

According to Gassin, most of the city crime is related to the quality of urban design rather than urbanization. Thus, there may be areas of crime in the city. (Gassin, 2006: p 116). He added that the urbanization expands rapidly and social and urban infrastructure facilities are not supplied commensurate with the increase in urban population. In such circumstances, the marginal slums and huts set up by the new immigrants and the poor are created.

Hirsaskar (1989) believes that the marginal areas (Marginal) is a secret hideout of various illegal activities more than other areas of the city and face more crimes than downtown. Since mental features of suburb region residents are affected by their living environment, the marginal man usually has decadent ethical features and values so he is easily drawn to corruption, delinquency, crime, sins, drinking and participating in secret activities related to drug abuse.

5. Features of Marginalization and Marginalized People

Common and distinctive features of marginalization and marginalized people are:

1. The marginalization is due to poverty.

2. The marginalization is caused by the intensified rate of rural- urban emigration.

3. In suburb regions, there is informal, unproductive and parasitic employment.

4. There is the culture of poverty in suburb regions.

5. In suburb regions, Fatalism governs.

6. The marginalized people have low literacy.

7. The marginalized people have low income.

8. The unemployment rate in suburb regions is very high.

9. The marginalized people live in substandard and unconventional settlements.

10. The population density in suburb regions is very high.

11. The rate of child labor in suburb regions is very high.

12. The rate of deviation and crime in suburb regions is very high.

13. They have a distinct social and cultural context from urban society (Mohseni, 2008)

The general descriptions of suburb regions which are related to crime are the following:

1. Unfavorable face of the city

2. Low public health

3. Low mental and physical health

4. Lack of decent jobs and adequate income

5. Existing various micro-cultures

6. High population density

7. Lack of educational and welfare facilities

8. Poverty expansion

9. The spread of drug addiction and crime

10. The origin of the deviations and crimes are the negative consequences of marginalization.

6. Clarification of Marginalization

With the onset of exogenous development of the country and promoting consumption patterns specific to the Western capitalism, the central city is in the agenda, the traditional relationship between three systems of subsistence (tribal, rural, urban) is fractured and the tribe and village structures are separated and the inability of the country's infrastructure to attract decentralized consumption patterns have led to the concentration of urban network in the capital and in some other cities with far less intensity, the strong focus on urban macrocephaly network aggravates urban problems including shelter and housing, and since the abundance of God-given material will be distributed on the basis of stratification and social hierarchies, a group encounter lack of shelter (Piran, 1987: 46). This leads to the formation of disorganized settlements and marginalization in the cities.

At the micro level, the causes underlying the formation of marginalization and informal settlements are:

1. The lack of clear and effective programs to meet the needs of housing and people with low-income in appropriate geographical distribution.

2. Lack of adequate forecast of residential space for people with low-income in urban and physical designs and observing standards beyond their means.

3. Limited access to formal credit and mortgage systems for people with low revenues, especially workers in the informal sector.

4. Existing power cliques bands and land abusers along with negligence and failure to supervise and control the construction, especially in the intermediate cities.

5. The lack of institution-building for providing and gathering resources of people with low-income and lack of government support and guidance for self-help housing (Sarafi, 2002: p 7).

6. Social and geographical situation of suburb regions.

Special situation of suburb regions, streets and alleys, overpopulation, the connection of houses have made these areas a suitable place for delinquents to hide or escape from the grip of justice. In addition, inappropriate reaction of police in these areas and Another factor, dating and family ties and friendship between the people of these areas and habitual suspicion toward the residents has led to this fact that people have no trust in police and do not believe in their efficiency, therefore, less reports of crime are seen. Another factor, familiarities and family relations among the residents are evident because most of them know each other and have family relation with each other so they report crimes less. The reason is that most guilty people are native in these areas and they do not allow strangers and outsiders to have illegal activities in their territory.

In order to understand the factors effecting marginalization, the following model has been provided:

Diagram 1. factors effecting marginalization Geography magazine (spring and summer, 2006).

7. Marginalization Pathology

Negative consequences of informal habitats and marginalization are:

1. Marginalization, the challenge against sustainable urban development

One of the effects of uneven and unbalanced physical development of the city is the illegal form of marginalization. Illegal settlements are considered serious for sustainability and coherence of the city due to poverty, as well as endangering the environment and impose heavy costs to resolve image problems. Not only are none of the sustainable development approaches and strategies for urban development seen in the marginalization, but also marginalization increases the crime rate and urban damages.

2. Marginalization and increasing crime

In Suburb regions there is crime as much as the dark figure of crime (Dark Number).

7.1. Common Criminal Acts in Suburbs

Criminal acts in suburb regions are classified into two categories:

1. Criminal acts committed before or during the formation of marginalization, including:

1-1 Land use change

2-1 duress

3-1 non-property sale

4-1 unauthorized construction

2. Criminal acts after the formation of the marginalization, including:

1-2 Stealing and concealing stolen property

2-2 Alcohol and Drug dealing

3-2 Group fights

4.2 Murder

5-2 destruction of public property

6-2 harassment and denial of the right

7-2 extortion and threats to someone else

8-2 sexual violence

9-2 prostitution

10-2 child abuse

7.2. Marginalization and Vulnerable Groups

Effects and damage caused by marginalization are more toward women and children.

1. Marginalization and delinquency of children

In studying the crime of children in suburb regions other than personal, social factors such as family environment, which is basically the foundation of the child's personality, parental addictions, violence and punishment, discrimination among children, divorce, education and low literacy, tenancy, population density in the family, family poverty, migration and the quality of the urban environment and urban development play major roles.

2. Marginalization and Child Labor

Common feature of all children who work in suburb regions is lack of supervisor caused by death or bad supervision, running away from home, widespread poverty, the inability of parents to meet basic needs, leaving school, forcing parents to earn the imprisonment of a parent and the child, extrusion.

General characteristics of working and street children who move to large cities include instable personality, having diversity of demand, depressed, fearful, unhappy, having sleep disorders, disgruntle, aggressive, lack of self-esteem, looking for love, anxious and prone to all kinds of social deviance and delinquency.

3. Delinquent Children

1. Steal: stealing supplies from supermarkets, relatives and neighbors, burglary, robbery, stealing bicycles and motorcycles are often the thefts which are done by delinquent children in suburb regions.

2. The drug distribution

3. Homosexuality

4. Panhandling and begging

5. Street nuisance

6. Street beatings

7. destruction of private and public property (flatting out cars, breaking the windows of houses, tearing covers of public transport vehicles, destruction of public telephones, chairs in parks, killing animals are the crimes of the children in suburb areas.

7.3. Marginalized Women and Crime

Crimes committed by women have four major characteristics:

1. Specificity of women's crimes

2. The low share of women in criminal activities

3. More tendencies of women for abetting

4. The less repeating offense rate among women offenders

Heidensohn (1986) argues that women are less likely to commit a crime, because of the control by both the family and the community.

Generally women’s crimes in suburb regions can be divided into two categories:

1. Sexual crimes.

2. Case crimes.

Prostitution is the most common sexual crimes of women in suburb regions. Prostitution is considered as a profession with adequate income for women in these areas. The activity of women in prostitution is as individual and group (band). Edwards (1987) considered oppression and exploitation of women the reason of prostitution in patriarchal society. According to him, most girls and young women tend to prostitution due of the potential inability to obtain adequate income, loss of jobs and pensions, well drained. Delinquency also occurs because not all can reach acceptable aims by society (economic success) particularly through academic qualifications and legitimate ways.

75% of prostitutes in suburb areas are widows and divorced women and runaway girls who have come out of the towns. 20 percent of them are women whose husbands are in prison or on a trip and they do this in order to earn livings. 5% do this with the consent of their husbands so they help in expenses (Mohajeran, 2008)

Other prevalent women’s crime can be abortion and child abuse. The reason of child abuse of women is found in wife abuse and has a retaliatory aspect.

Drug dealing, making wine and alcohol, women and girls addiction is the case-behavioral crimes in suburb regions. Among these women, beggary, begging and prostitution can be seen in abundance.

8. Introducing Pakdasht Town

This town is located in the southeast of the city of Tehran on the sidelines of Tehran-Mashhad transit road and its city center is Pakdasht. The beginning of this town is Forun Abad and it ends in Aliabad industrial town. This town covers an area of ​​610 square kilometers has about 23% of the total area of Tehran. In 1997 this town was promoted from district to town under the approval of the Council of Ministers and includes two cities and two districts named central district and Sharif Abad and 64 villages which are scattered in these two districts according to the last country divisions. This town has various sand and gravel mines, suburbs and industrial towns. It has allocated 23306 hectares lands which is generally %24 of the whole agricultural fields of Tehran and %75 of flower production of Tehran is done by this town. According to the reported results of statistics in 1385 in government website of national center of statistics of Iran, 61,228 households, including 240,841 people were living in this city, of which 125,043 were males and 115,798 were females.

Picture 1. map of Pakdasht Source: Pakdasht Municipality Website,2014.

Picture 2. map of Pakdasht Source: Pakdasht Municipality Website,2014.

This town as one of the most important towns of Tehran is named Pakdasht because it is located in the communication route of East of Tehran and having industries around itself and producing agricultural products such as vegetables and flowers. Non-stop growth of immigrants population especially after the Revolution, and lack of immigration controls has managed to physical development, these textures are constructed informally and out of regulations framework and Khatoon Abad is one of the most important part, this area is located in the western part of this town with a population of 4,900 people and has low urban infrastructure, health, economic, social in comparison with other areas.

9. Conclusions

Marginalization as a multi-dimensional category appears on a series of interactions resulted by effects of various components. Slum can be considered as a kind of privation. What causes privations and increases it is forgetting weak class of society in plans and planning and the weakness of management in on time and proper recognition and providing appropriate solution for all the people in society, this phenomenon is a social issue and we have to have a generalized sight in order to understand it. Slum is a metropolitan problem that reflects the weakness of the social structure and informal and unconventional living spaces and of the city, a sick economy, the urban poor management, inefficient spatial- regional planning and social- the economy injustice at the national, provincial and local levels.

In fact, marginalization is the result of social and structural problems which is mainly due to the rapid flow of immigration from cities to the countryside. This social phenomenon is more highlighted in developing countries and has more negative impacts on the process of urban management. In this neighborhood, this phenomenon can be seen far worse. This was also due to the Brickyard furnace and the related problems can be seen highlighted.

Methods for facing marginalized people and solving their problems and problems resulting from slums are problems to all the urban managers around the world. In fact, in the world, there is no big city which has no informal settlements and slums around it.

Spatial marginalization, caused by economic and social marginalization is that part of the population who live in these regions. They have low social participation and citizenship and are not satisfied with the services provided in the community. Regarding increasing unemployment and poverty, marginalized people are more exposed to social trauma.

Despite the fact that each suburb regions has unique features, some features such as poverty, risky behaviors and extensive social damages have similar situations.

In the study of the situation of social damages of marginalized people is has been observed that men in the study (five districts) do not have the same share of the crime allocation means that there are regions and areas in which men commit crimes more than their share and they have turned into the centers corruption, crime and social deviance.

The preventive policies and actions which adopting them in suburb regions leads to healthy social environment of these regions and reduction in the crime rate and social trauma are:

1. The development and modernization of rural textures with the aim of reducing the motivation of rural-urban migration.

2. Controlling population growth and its reorganization

3. Modifying the structures of urban system and the elimination of the limitations contained in the planning laws and institutions.

4. Improving the quality and level of services to vulnerable groups and people with low income.

5. Organizing the employment situation and the elimination of structural unemployment of marginalized people.

6. Promotion of literacy and culture of urbanization of Suburb regions residents

7. Equitable distribution of urban facilities and services between citizens and marginalized people.

8. Preventing the concentration of economic activities in cities and transferring it to other areas and small towns.

9. The decreased index sense of deprivation among marginalized people.

10. Organizing suburb regions with a focus on eliminating poverty and its governing poverty culture.

11. Preventing the spread of unauthorized construction in marginal districts of the city.

12. The recognition of the civil rights of suburb regions residents in different economic, social and physical planning.

13. Enhancing constant security, supervising and considerations of institutions of suburb regions.

14. The empowerment of suburb regions and implementing environmental and social vaccination campaign against crime and social trauma, supplying security and social justice, reduction in economic and cultural inequalities among the various segments of society and different parts of the country.

The recognition of the rights of suburb regions residents, reengineering suburb regions, empowerment, improving access to social services and the realization of urban sustainable endogenous development strategy is crucial.


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