Emergence of Deconstruction
Niloofar Najafi1, Laleh Khodakhah Jeddi2
1M. A. Architecture Engineering, Non-profit Institute of Higher Education, Aba Abyek Qazvin, Iran
2Interior Architecture, Non- public non-profit Institute of Sureh, Tehran, Iran
To cite this article:
Niloofar Najafi, Laleh Khodakhah Jeddi. Emergence of Deconstruction. International Journal of Architecture, Arts and Applications. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaaa.20160201.11
Received: March 12, 2016; Accepted: June 28, 2016; Published:August 1, 2016
Abstract: This article is a brief description of the school deconstruction, emergence of school year, the cause of thought, aesthetic traditional structures destruction is in architecture such as "symmetry", "arrangement", "balance" and "hierarchy, Eisenman believes that modernists claim that should search utopia in the future. Additionally postmodernists are looking utopia in the past, architecture should find utopia in today conditions.
Keywords: Deconstruction, Structures Traditional Destruction, Fractal Geometry, Disorder from Inside Out
In Persian deconstruction translated, deconstruction, deconstruct, breaking foundations, and breaking root.1 Maybe due to the multiplicity names deconstruction is a multidimensional approach and several meaning to the signifier and signified, and any kind of text. In the first half of the twentieth century, the most important schools which continued philosophy modern, was the existence philosophy. Jean-Paul Sartre (1980-1905), French philosopher, is the founder of this school. Modern rationalism was raised by Descartes, Kant and other modern scholars were the basis of his philosophy. The half-recent century, about modern philosophy and existence Principality School and wisdom was questioned by the new school which named the school of structuralism. At first this school was raised by Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, and French anthropologist Strauss. Structuralism is response to transcendental wisdom and modern mentality. Structuralisms believe that a more important factor of the mind was constantly disregarded and that is the structure of language. According to structuralism scholars, we have to study the human mind structures and this structure is very important. Structure mind is based on language. Human connects to outside world through language. Any mentality depends on the language structure. Deconstruction school, is one of the important branches postmodern philosophy, is criticism to Structuralism insight and also modern thinking. Deconstruction school is considered as a sub-set poststructuralist. Post-structuralisms questioned structural extreme rationality and extreme structuralisms about their structure. Post-structuralisms believe that "the importance, languages dynamics should be Search instability of meanings".
2. History of Deconstruction
Deconstruction school thought was founded by contemporary French philosopher Jacques Derrida in 1930. Derrida disagreed with the structuralisms and believes when we are looking structures, we forget variables, every moment culture and ethnic styles will be change, so structuralisms approach cannot be correct.
Structuralism is a reaction against rationalism and the modern subjectivity that was questioned Descartes, Kant thoughts and other modern scholars. This style of architecture as overarching and universal was relatively short time and did not exceed more than a decade, but puts Profound and fundamental impact in the field of architecture, design and type of representation of meaning and interpretation.
3. DE Constructivism
DE constructivism in Persian translated a kind of promiscuous, deconstruction, Open and Opening. Think for a moment building Miss Van Ruhe or Le Corbusier instead of white or gray color is red with the same materials simply because of color changing will be dramatic differences. Except color, the same point can be generalized to the other factors such as components building materials and also an implementation plan. An example of philosophical concepts understanding is famous statement Descartes (I think therefore I am) we face with this question: (How do you know that do you think?). Whatever is the answer to this question, deconstruct creates base of thought Descartes and confidence in it, and leads to thinking to new world surely. French painter Rene Magritte proposed the same question in one of his painting. The painting is a simple picture that illustrated a pip and written by good handwriting under it (this is not a pip), what have been really purpose of this painting? Do you want to have joke? This message is joke even if this possibility rejected, here the fact is that pip image concept will be deconstruct. DE constructivist does not believe in pure truths. In modern philosophy are simple forms such as cubic ... but DE constructivists believes that forms at the same dynamics and movement static should be complex. DE constructivism means is mushroom and cracking and disordered from the outside, but DE constructivism means is the disorder inside.
4. The Philosophy of Deconstruction
Deconstruction point of view we live in the world multiple meanings. Everyone the phenomena around themselves has a different meaning and deduction and reader implication and his understanding is important. According to Derrida, speaker does not define meaning of the text but also the listener or reader define the meaning which may be different from purpose and intention of the speaker or author and considers based on his mentality and experience and deconstruction of a text is means to evoke logical inferences is contrary to the text itself. One of the Iranian contemporary writers and theorists writes:
The purpose deconstruction is opening or opens the entire infrastructure. Deconstruction school divides text into components or different parts, separate them, multiple elements and its constituent part divide to small parts and in this way it shows contradictions and assumptions.
5. The Cause of Thought
Another issue is binary oppositions that Derrida criticized. Binary oppositions such as day and night, male and female, subject and object, speech and writing, beautiful and ugly, good and bad, had been raised in West philosophy. Since Plato until now has always been one superior to the other. However, According to Derrida opinion there is no preference.
He rejects black and white logic and Or issues this, reject it. Aesthetics traditional criteria should be removed, but must still remain legible. This style in architects works is, asymmetry, uncertainty, ambiguity, uncertainty, dichotomy, polysemy and lack of profitability, but in modern and post-modern architecture arises, symmetry, balance, clarity, stability, usefulness and profitability. But binary oppositions prefer always one to the other. But what neglected and is absent, asymmetry, lack of clarity, uncertainty, ambiguity, reflect the mental and today conditions biological and what we neglected in today architecture is part of our everyday life. Renowned architects this style can be named Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry, Zahahdyd, Rem Koolhaas, and Bernard Tschum.
American contemporary architect Peter Eisenman had philosophical debates in the field of architecture. Article Eisenman named "boundary between" criticized modern philosophy and modern architecture. In his view, modern architecture has been established based on science and philosophy of the nineteenth century.
Valuable discussion Hegel about thesis, antithesis and synthesis from opinion Eisenman is useless in today world. Post-modern philosophers such as Nietzsche, Freud, Heidegger and Derrida have changed our relationship with the universe. Nineteenth-century science and beliefs to it finished and has lost its period validity. The new law is not as a physics law, Albert Einstein and uncertainty principle Werner Heisenberg has changed our perception of the world around us. So if architecture is a science should be based on today science and philosophy and our perception and our surroundings. Today we put science and philosophy of the nineteenth century architecture aside and adapt themselves with the new conditions. Eisenman believes that modernists claim that utopia should be search in the future. But today architecture should be find utopia in today condition. In this case he used the term of "Echnonit" and believes using of architecture in every time and any place is Echnonit Related to current time. To achieve above conditions, architecture laws should be disturbed, and since these rules are contractual and is not normal. So, disruption is possible. Facts and past symbols have to open (become deconstruct) and new concepts in accordance with the conditions today to be extracted from their hearts. In the past and also in the modern and postmodern architecture what is presented, symmetry, balance, clarity, stability, useful and has been beneficial. Eisenman in article "boundary between" used term «Catachresis» which means of bilateral or ambiguity. Two-sided is between the borders. There is not priority between two-sided or ambiguity. Both this and that is- both is not.5
The first and most prominent buildings in deconstruction style are, visual arts Center Wexner United States in city Columbus (1989-1982). Competition planing took place in 1982, participated the famous architects including: Michael Graves, Cesar Pelli, Arthur Erickson and Peter Eisenman. Site placed at the main entrance the University of Ohio on the East University. Works artists and students and building construction presented in it. Each of the architects placed you between gates and available buildings on the site. But surprisingly, the building designed by Eisenman so that narrow space between two available buildings on the site is opened and placed there and more surprising that his plan announced as the first winner. Then style in architecture called architecture community international deconstruction raised and was considered. Plan is stated itself that this point is the meeting place of two classes of people which are relatively different. Students and artists presented their wokls at the building and citizens and common people to see the works. One axis is univercity chess network and another is city chess network Columbus, are 17 degrees different to each other. Therefore both the network as a sign of any of these classes havemet each other on the site. This dichotomy in building architecture displayed somehow there is not nothing preference between them and two classes like scissor blades open two buildings and have been replaced yourselves on that. Eisenman found old foundations building which was the military college after opening and splitting the space between two buildings on site. This building was destroyed in decade fifties, but still part of the foundations was buried under the soil on site. Although the building no longer exists, Eisenman foun by checking detailed the site.
He considerd this building as part of text available that is the same project site, read and this reading is shown physicall. Therefore in Eisenman plan, parts of the military college building, which resembles to a fortress and was repaired at the head of entrance visual arts Center building Wexner. In design artistic center, Eisenman unlike the others focused to something that did not seem at first glance. With detailed glance, he showed cases such as contradictions, dichotomies and marginal issues and interpretations. This framework is unfamiliar with city urban network Columbus, Center Wexner and campus connected to the other side the city and surprisingly urban network connected to the campus network. Eisenman puts a network on other network for creating a disturbing link on the site.
6. Jewish Museum Berlin
The museum was designed by architect Daniel Libeskind. Main museum Jewish in Berlin was established in 1933. During the Nazi regime has closed in 1938. A view of the Jewish Museum, which is the same as a broken line and reminder of the suffering, disorganizing the David Star, in general form be seen in the museum. One of the entrances is from the inside of building next the museum. This structure is opposite with the structure the museum disorganizing. The museum building which indicates Jews history is formed along the broken line. Libeskind seems as a separate building, there is no external input to the building official all new buildings are covered.
For entering the museum we have to enter museum Baroque and underground. Visitors should experience anxiety hidden entrance. All new buildings are covered. Black walls and unfamiliar spaces end to a deadlock. Internal decorator is reinforced concrete that the empty spaces and dead in which Just a piece of light entering the space are composed. It is a symbolic of gesture was raised by Libeskind who visitors experience and felt during World War II, so that even in the most difficult moments when you feel there is a little light hope. Darkness frightening and a little light shines into inside from corner broken angle until oppression condition is shown. Windows direction dose not Reach to special thing and its aim is confusion concept induction to visitors.6 Underground pathways and old buildings are linked to building Libeskind and there is no formal entrance from the outside. Visitors through big vacuum and cross the old buildings and is seen stairs on right, whereas before it was hidden. None of first and second direction does not reach to exhibition spaces and the third way or the same "existence" arrive to gallery, destruction Path arrive to tower Holocaust, which is separated from other building components.
The most emotional and powerful vacuum in the space of a wall of a building where the floor fills 10,000 smileys the cast iron as a symbol of those who have lost. Visitors should pass on it and by trembling on them, is heard human Zing. Lines on building are derived from the city map Berlin and represents Jewish neighborhoods and streets in which happened an historical important event or an event associated with the Jews and provide space chore. The Building is small than a museum, but Experience picturing Understanding, is further. Near museum are hanging Gardens which plants have been grown on top of the columns, in exile garden that feel slope on it, is among the 49 concrete tall columns which has covered with plants.
These columns are looking for open sky; Jewish Museum Libeskind is emotional journey through history which experiences the sense of uncertainty and reluctance. Willow oak Russian grows on top of the column which is a symbol of hope.
Deconstruction is an approach in design and is lacking the visual logic and for extraction of the meaning and concepts, should open the facts and symbols. Conversely modern systems, deconstruction is non-linear process and non-Euclidean geometry and fractal geometry (Fractious: irregular shaped stony, broken and crushed) and are unlike regular Euclidean geometry.
World of Mechanical and organic
Charles Jencks raises discussion trap / butterfly. Traps: Mechanics, butterfly: freedom
The modern world: the world like watches, created limited and static and passive, fixed and non-dynamic –Traps
Deconstruction world: the world like cloud or butterfly, changing and dynamic, creative and active, has the power of self-organizing, butterfly